Technology of production of toilet paper
To prepare the necessary paper plant substances that have long enough fiber, which, mixing with water, give a homogeneous, plastic, pulp.
Semi-finished products for the production of the paper are: Basis pulp or cellulose pulp of annual plants (straw, trostnitsy, hemp, rice, etc.) hemicellulose waste paper rag half-stuff for special types of paper: asbestos, wool and other fibers.
Paper consists of the following processes: the preparation of the pulp (grinding and mixing the components, gluing, filling and coloring paper pulp) production of pulp on a paper machine (dilution with water and clean the mass of dirt, tide, pressing and drying, as well as the primary finishing) finishing (calendering, cutting) sorting and packaging.
When grinding the fibers give the necessary thickness and physical properties. Grinding is done in devices periodic and continuous action (roll, conical and disc mills, refiners and others). To make the paper suitable for writing and give it hydrophobic properties, the pulp is introduced rosin glue, paraffin emulsion, alumina and other adhesion promoting substance (so-called sizing); to enhance the connection between the fibers and increase the mechanical strength and hardness is added starch, animal glue; to increase the strength of paper in the wet state - urea formaldehyde and melamine-formaldehyde resins.
To improve whiteness, smoothness, softness and opacity, as well as improve the printability of paper injected mineral fillers (kaolin, chalk, talc); to color and enhance the whiteness -anilinovye (less mineral) dyes. Some papers, such as absorbent and insulating, produced without sizing and filling.
Paper from hemp supply and rice paper whiter paper from wood pulp, so often do not require additional chemical bleaching fibers. Finished pulp concentration of 2.5 - 3.5% by the pump is fed from the preparatory department of the mixing in the pool, where it comes from on the paper machine.
Pre mixture is diluted with recycled water (up to 0.1 - 0.7%) and passed through sewage treatment equipment (sandboxes, vortex and centrifugal cleaners and uzloloviteli). The most common is the so-called dining room (with a flat mesh) paper machine. It consists of a grid, press and dryer section, calender and reel. The furnish a continuous stream flows onto a moving mesh closed in the ring of the machine where there is a low tide, dewatering and compaction of the paper web.
Further dehydration and sealing webs produced in the press section, formed by several roller press, between which rolls the paper web is transported throughout the whole process woolen cloth serving as an elastic gasket. The final removal of water takes place in the drying section, where the paper web is alternately in contact with its surfaces heated by steam iron grinding cylinders arranged in a checkerboard pattern in two tiers.
Obtain a smooth surface of the paper because it is pressed against the upper and lower cylinders felts. The paper web gets off in the calender is a vertical battery of metal shafts 5-8. When moving between the rollers downwards web becomes smooth, compacted and leveled in thickness. The resulting paper web is wound onto rolls in the reel, which is a forced rotating cylinder, which is pressed against the platen with wound on his paper.
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